Friday 21 December 2012


The CNN Effect 

The second world war created for the first time in history a truly global international system. Events in one region affect events elsewhere and therefore are of interest to states in other,even distant places. At the beginning of the 1980's, innovation in communication technologies and the vision of Ted Turner produced CNN, the first time global news network. CNN refer as "Cable News Network". CNN broadcasted news around the clock and around the world via a combination of satellites and cable television outlets. In the 1990-1991 Gulf war, CNN emerged as global actor in international relations.and its successful coverage inspired other broadcasting organizations such as BBC,which already had a world radio broadcast,NBC, and star to establish global television networks. CNN's growth and diversification's, including the creation of CNN International relations, such as technology, economics, culture, law, public opinion, politics,and diplomacy, as well as war fare, terrorism, human rights, environmental degradation, refugees and health. in the 1980's. these effect attracted limited attention from both the academic and professional communities, but CNN's coverage of the gulf war encouraged greater investigations. The war marked a turning point in the history of communication and of  CNN is particular, which brought about a similar change in communications and international relations requires adequate theoretical and empirical work to scientifically assess its place and influence.Many scholars have conducted studies of  CNN within various general frameworks. This article investigates studies of  CNN's effects on war and intervention, foreign policy, many of these works explore what become known as the  "CNN effect". scholars have yet to define the  CNN effect, leading one to questions if an elaborated theory exists or simply an attractive neologism. In the early analysis of this supposed effect, writers also called it the  "CNN complex", the " CNN curve" and the " CNN factor". each carrying multiple meanings with journalists, officials and scholars. In recent years, however, researchers have predominately associated global real time news coverage with forcing policy on leaders and accelerating the pace of international communication.

CNN international is broadcast in over 212 countries, and translated in numerous language.In Africa, CNN broadcast in several countries, and some of their programs are specially meant for African audience. Take for example African voices, a program that is aired and covers some of the issues affecting Africa, be they economical, political, and so forth. CNN international has over the years diversified its programs, and every one will find something interesting to watch . CNN cartoon network is popular with smaller children. The older generation prefers to watch programs like Quest Means Business, the Christina Amanpour report. These are examples of some popular  programs in CNN, which are very popular with adults, and those interested in knowing what is taking place across the borders.    

In India,  CNN has stake in  IBN (Indian broadcasting network) i.e. CNN IBN.       

World war II
                  In WWII, mass media became an important part of the war efforts. The war could be easily broadcast throughout the world and major television broadcast companies quickly became forefront runners of broadcasting. Throughout subsequent wars, the Cold War, Vietnam, Gulf War, and other conflicts, broadcast companies NBC, BBC, and CNN became some of the most influential broadcasters of the war activities. Senior political officials began to recognize how their policies were affected by the mass media. Former Secretary of State James Barker III wrote, “In Iraq, Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda, and Chechnya, among others, the real-time coverage of conflict by the electronic media have served to create a powerful new imperative for prompt action that was not present in less frenetic [times]”.  The theory states that television coverage can have three different effects on humanitarian military interventions. The first effect is self-titled the “CNN Effect,” where images of suffering push governments into intervention; the second is the “body bags effect,” where images of casualties pull governments away; the final effect is the “bullying effect,” where the use of excessive force risks draining away public support for intervention. As will be shown, despite the great ability the media have to affect political power, it failed in its duty in the genocide of Rwanda and Darfur.

Rwanda Introduction:
                The conflict in Rwanda had been slowly building since the mid-1900s between two people groups, the Hutu and Tutsis. Genocide began in 1959 when the Hutu government militia killed 20,000 Tutsis. Intermittent fighting and killing continued until April of 1994 when the president of the Hutu militia was shot down in a jet. Massacre started the next day with 8,000 to 10,000 Rwandans being killed each day. The international media failed here in informing the world of the massive genocide. Reporter Tom Giles (2007) described the slow response:

For nearly three weeks in April, after its first days had passed, the story of one of the twentieth century’s worst crimes had failed – in an age of global satellite broadcasting – to make the top of the TV news bulletins.It took the news media several weeks to begin circulating the story of the genocide in Rwanda. Even then the stories were scarce and often times overshadowed by stories of happenings in Bosnia. News sources also had a hard time getting reporters into Rwanda due to the highly dangerous atmosphere. For most of April, there were only 10-15 reporters in the whole country. The world was generally kept in darkness about the massacre in Rwanda as producers decided the happenings were not important enough to show audiences. Richard Dowden (2007), director of the Royal African Society said:

Rwanda simply wasn't important enough. To British editors, it was a small 
country far away in a continent that rarely hit the headlines. The words Hutu and 
Tutsi sounded funny, hardly names that ambitious news editor or desk officer 
would want to draw to the attention of a busy boss and claim that they were of 
immediate and vital importance. On top of this, many reporters had trouble fully 
understanding the situation and accurately getting the story out of the country due 
to poor technology. 

 Many lives could have been saved if the mass media would have done more during the situation. Lieutenant-General Romeo Dallaire said during the crisis that “I felt that one good journalist on the ground was worth a battalion of troops because I realized they could bring pressure to bear”. The CNN Effect states that political members would have taken a larger step to prevent the crisis if the media would have more greatly emphasized the genocide. When the situation began settling down in the late 1990s, over one million people were victims of the situation. National political figures claimed that they would never let something like this happen again. In a speech given by Rwanda President Paul Kagame at the general assembly of the United Nations (2005), the president said:

Never again should the international community’s response to these crimes be found wanting. Let us resolve to take collective action in a timely and decisive manner. Let us also commit to put in place early warning mechanisms and ensure.that preventive interventions are the rule rather than the exception. 

Darfur Introduction:
 No less than 10 years later, however, in 2003 another massive genocide occurred less than 1000 miles away, in nearby Sudan . The situation surrounding this second act of massive genocide started in much the same way. Various people groups were fighting for land and representation within the country. In February of 2003, the Janjaweed began burning villages and massacring villagers. Despite the media and politicians claiming they would never let another act of atrocity go unnoticed again, the news media once again failed at noticing the story until later in the year. When the genocide finally gained attention from the news media, reporters still had trouble accessing Sudan as the government was making it near impossible to enter the country. Bacon (2004) describes the tight security as the “Sudanese authorities rapidly erected an obstacle course for gaining access to Darfur. It can take more than six weeks to get a visa for Sudan, and sometimes the government won't grant them at all”. The story did not become a hot topic until September of 2004 when United States Secretary of State, Colin Powell, came out and called the issue in Sudan, “genocide”. Up until this point, the situation had not been referred to in that way. This caused a media frenzy until December of that year when the tsunami hit Asia and Darfur was immediately forgotten about: “Darfur instantly vanished from the TV screens and the pages of newspapers. The media could handle only one emotion-laden story at a time, not two, and the tsunami was much more politically correct than Darfur”.

The CNN Effect in Rwanda and Darfur :

                  Because the CNN Effect has such a broad definition, it can be pointed out that the theory may be perceived as inconsistent. The policy-media interaction model is one of the THE CNN EFFECT best ways to narrow down the theory into a manageable size. A conclusion can now be made about how the CNN Effect worked in Rwanda and Darfur. In both of these cases, media attention failed to alert the public of the magnitude of genocide happening in the countries; in fact, the word “genocide” was not even used
during the first few months. Because the events were being portrayed as “chaos” or “tribal wars” people did not pay attention because there was no emotional connection to a “small” civil war happening on the other side of the world. The world did not begin to notice the magnitude of the events until the word “genocide” began to be used. The public quickly found out that one social group of people was quickly being wiped out from existence. In Rwanda, the majority of later news reports focused on the refugees and the camps they lived in. U.S. policy was quickly changed to send aid to these people when the public finally took notice. In Darfur, the public began understanding what was really happening when celebrities like George Clooney began informing people of the genocide. Darfur had a stronger media presence in the end stages of the genocide than Rwanda did, but both countries did not receive enough. Many people suffered and died because the events were either not broadcast at all, or were overpowered by stories of other events:  There is a reason why Darfur is called by some journalists and politicians“another Rwanda”. After the Second World War, the world said “never again” and the genocide in Rwanda took place. After this genocide, the people again promised themselves “never again” and now after 10 years of tragedy in Rwanda, the same thing happened in Darfur. If media had broadcast events earlier and harder, it is safe to say that policy makers, who at the time did not have firm-set policies, would have intervened more readily. There can be no doubt that media affects people each and every day. Turn on the TV, listen to the radio in the car, read a blog post online, it all influences you either in a positive or in a negative way. Mass media have a huge power over the public; they can form the public into whatever they want. Communist nations use propaganda to brainwash their citizens to believe preposterous things.  American advertising uses images of skinny models to tell girls what they need to look like. It is all around us. Because mass media have such great power, it also has a large responsibility. When large humanitarian crises happen, such as genocide, the media need to be there and show people what is happening in effort to stop it. There will always be challenges, but we can learn from the past and not repeat the same mistakes.  News services need to not be afraid of pushing a popular story out of the radar to cover crisis events. Media are the first line of defense. They should be the first in the country, the first to accurately report what is happening, and to actively push for global aid. If all agencies were willing to do this, there should never be an excuse for letting hundreds of thousands of people be slaughtered. Media have power; when used wisely, they can change the world.

20 Minutes compare to 24*7....

Compare of Doordarshan and Private News Channels 

              As we all know that Doordarshan was the first Indian channel on television. Where lots of serials and actors discovered their way in Bollywood. The shows like "Hum Panch" and "Surag" was excellent and others programs were also very good enough.  here I am going to talk you about the critical analysis of news presented by Doordarshan and Private channel. 
                       Following points includes the differentiation between Doordarshan and Times Now :                  

 Ownership: Doordarshan was the first launch in 15 September, 1959 by Prasar Bharati. this helps to begin the era of television in country. While Times Now was launched on 23 January,2006 By Times of India group.

Technology: Doordarshan is a channel that doesn't have lots of technology due to this they are unable to show the things with the great graphics and pictures. while Times Now is a group of Times of India they are acquired a great technology with graphics.

Time duration and scope for presenting the News :  Doordarshan has only 20 minute time slot to represent the News in front of audience, so DD only chooses the burning issue of the day. In today's DD samachar they have talked about the Delhi gang rape and Suresh Kalmadi's fraud case. In that they have just bifurcate the Delhi Gang rape case in different Bytes of Sushil Kumar Shinde, R. K Singh and Byte of Doctors and Lawyer and they just able to introduce the main headlines of the day while times now is able to show the audience a live scene of the issue. Times now is able to conduct campaign "where is my India?" where they are taking a Wox Pox of the people protesting near Jantar mantar, 10 Janpath, Jammu and safdarjung hospital. they are also showing the comment of public  commented on Twitter and also takes a call from public.

Presenting and forming Public Opinions:  Delhi rape case is very sensitive case so media is putting their 100% to represent the view of public. Doordarshan is unable to show the Public Opinion meanwhile Times Now starts the campaign against this. here the conclusion came that due to the time shortage they are unable to present it well.But one point i noted that DD News present the limited news with great presentation in terms of anchoring and news selection.

Conclusion: Doordarshan has very less time and scope to present the News and the other private channels has 24 hours time slot to represent News. So they are able to come across the views of public. twitter, call by people and campaign while Doordarshan is lacking behind to all this entire element. So in short, private channels are overtaking the Doordarshan 20 minute slot with their 24*7 hour time span with lots of creativity and technology.I find that the time duration is the main factor that affects the quality of DD News with Private channels.

Tuesday 18 December 2012

Next Prime Minister ..

Next Prime Minister .........! 

                  Narendra Modi one of the icons of Gujarat is near to winning race of Prime minister as per the result of exit polls today. He is a very good leader there is no doubt about it. He shows new face of Gujarat which is self dependent and developed as well. Because of this most of the person want that Modi should become the prime minister of India. But now this will not remain in the talks because exist polls has finally revealed that Modi will become the next prime minister of India. Here the question arrives that how he can work on that large basis on the one side Gujarati families only binds to their own business and generally do not take care on education so in today also the Education quality of Gujarat is bad.  Bofors scam, 2G scam where is A. Raja was a telecom minister with lots of pre planning and finally a case of Robert Wadra, son- in-law of Congress. All these scam has really spoils the image of Congress. So, it is but obvious that people will believe the opposition party. Narendra Modi is now become a leader of common man just like Gadhiji...............!
            In this time both the party plays the various roles in politics -congress and Gujarat as per the exit polls results we can say that this is the BJP means only one Narendra Modi’s sucess. During these elections some are holding the Gujarat’s development point, then economically progressive. But what about the rural areas development? It still remains. The all satellite channels, print media all the ministerial parties are with modi and the only three are opposed. And obvious this is congress party.

            If we go throughout his historical work and also development, we can say that it does still remain around him and his monopoly system. During election time also he promises to be very low. there is lots of issues is related to Mr. Modi one of them was the "Godhara kand " where he is  constantly criticize by Media and people and the second burning issue of Modi is commenting on Sunanda Tharoor, wife of Shashi Tharoor. It was a very bad situation and mentality of Mr. Modi. According to me where you are living is India and women are worship like Goddess one Senior Minister is commenting on someone else wife is the very bad condition for India. From the year 2002 Modi was constantly being into limelight more for controversy compare to his work for Gujarat. He also made a hat trick record. Congress Government is always spoil name just for the scam either it farmers and other rural areas people. Are he comes out with the results or not?                 
            His works shows that his rapid urbanization and industrializations development work only highlighted, but his other ever growing other castes development? And also his crimes are ignored. So how can he make the bright future and handled the whole Government?  2002 is the keynote of Modi’s work. Even the major problem is that the Muslims are suffered too much in Gujarat. They don’t have freedom like in India anywhere without Gujarat.
            Only the positive part we can say that the re-election of BJP when they lost it. If I were a member of BJP think that, I would have certainly taken note of this warning in a constructive way. The root threat for BJP in Gujarat may be of the same way as in the past elections. Given the sense of let-down Indian voters have for governments they elect, Modi's. Even if a Gujarati citizen hasn't benefited (or benefited adequately) from the economic boom of the past decade, he or she still feels there is hope and implicitly trusts Modi's model.

What is the larger message from this?
              Essentially Mr. Modi and his authoritarian model of leadership are first and foremost a threat to the BJP as well as the sangh parivar. The harsh reality is that the Chief Minister has within the power of monetary, political and administrative; and more important now he become a central leaders are dependent on him to get into the national legislature.
It is now a matter of historical record how, after the 2002 massacre, the Gujarat Chief Minister was able to mobilize sentiments in the BJP against the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and his things to Mr. Modi to observe the rites of raj dharma. Since then, the party has continuously found itself Mr. Modi’s under.

            Mr. Modi’s supreme authority has prospered not just at the expense of the BJP; the sangh parivar too should have reason to worry. The RSS brass will ponder over the fact that today all its frontal organisations — the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh, the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh. What they are done with each other? Only hindutvavadi riots and nothing else. And on the basis of riots he wants success as a main leader.

             How can these possible to making a courage nation without following a main constitutional rules and regulation. What should be done? Only urban areas industrials work?

            Are these is not once again like British Gulamgiri and now Gujarat wants to creating a power.

Monday 17 December 2012

reality of India

India to Narway

Its not a fiction story ... it is true...
                          ( picture is only for representational purpose) 
                           It was the day when i was doing internship and i found one little boy in train. he was alone and very innocent. I saw him and felt very sorry for him when i asked about his family.... what he said made me very sad. he said that he was lived like this past 4 month because his stepmother beats and father always tortured him. he lost his mother at a very young age.when i asked him that if he want to join school again he said 'yes'. i promised him that i will definitely help you. 
                          At that day i contact one NGO working for child and luckily next day i found him on that same train and handover to NGO people.every case must be need to register in police station. so i also gone with them and the police... sorry to say but they don't have manner to even talk. they really scold that child that it was your mistake and said to the NGO people that "kaha kaha se lekar aate ho agar aise bacche ghar se bhag jate hai to ( addressing to the another child who was recently rescued by them) mana ki koi galti hai par aise bacche to khud hi bhagte hai" after listening this i felt very sorry for India that they refer "bacche bhagwan ka roop hote hai" only in book not in real life. on the other side Narway has sent parents because they are not taking good care of their child and the behavior of Indian police is very cruel.  Poilce and Government is made for the rich if they are poor then they did "SIN" and if rich does same... it could be just a "MISTAKE". 
                          This is the future of  Indian children who will be known as the future of India. 

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